The magic and Pure Alchemy of Iron

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Glad Jul 2019

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Glad Jul, I eagerly await the return of Sunna.

Watch the skies and don’t get swept up.

 

Hroth-

Who are the Norse People Part 2 (Germanic Culture)

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Rising out of Scandinavia/Jutland the Germanic tribes brought great change to a world largely dominated by Celtic and Roman civilization. They brought with them some of the finest metal work, art, poetry and one of most well attested mythological cosmologies that is still effecting our world today. Sit back, relax and lets take a second look at the Norse (Germanic) people .

 

The Beginning:

Stone Age Scandinavia.

Ahrensburg Culture (c. 12,900 to 11,700 BP)

Kultura_ahrensburska

 

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Fosna–Hensbacka Culture (Hunter Gatherer)

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Komsa culture (Hunter Gatherer)

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Swiderian_culture

Swidarian Culture. (10,000 BP)

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800px-Baltic_History_7500-BC.svg

Maglemosian Culture(Hunter Gatherer)

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cd729640c8870b58f5ce40bcfbaecd3e--european-history-genetics

Kongemose Culture (Hunter Gatherers)

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800px-European-middle-neolithic-en.svg

Ertebølle Culture (Hunter Gatherer)

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Pitted Ware Culture Scandinavia.

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TRB_culture_map

Funnel Beaker Culture.

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Bronze Age Germany/Scandinavia/Poland and East/Central Europe.

1280px-Map_Corded_Ware_culture-en.svg

Corded Ware Culture.

 

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Beaker_culture

Beaker Culture.

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800px-Central_Europe_Reinecke_BA1

Unetice Culture. Figures (4)

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UrnfieldCulture

Urnfield Culture.

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Nordic_Bronze_Age

 

Nordic Bronze Age.

))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))(((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((

Early Iron Age:

Chernyakhov

Wielbark Culture Poland.

Gotland (Green)

Gotland Island (Pink)

Wielbark Culture (Goths) (Red)

……………………….

800px-Hausurne_Neu_Königsaue

ArcheologicalCulturesOfCentralEuropeAtEarlyPreRomanIronAge

House Urns Culture  (7th century BC ) (Bright Green)

Przeworsk Culture. Could be associated with the Vandalic groups but also Early Slavic tribes and was likely a culture somewhere in between these two expanding peoples.

 

Archeological_cultures_in_Northern_and_Central_Europe_at_the_late_pre-Roman_Iron_Age

Oksywie Culture: (Brown) A culture with possible ties to the  Przeworsk culture. It is associated within the Germanic sphere of of expansion but also shows elements of La Tène and Przeworsk.

 

ArcheologicalCulturesOfCentralEuropeAtEarlyPreRomanIronAge

Pomeranian Culture (Pea Green)

Pomeranian Culture: Showing La Tène influence and a unique pottery style. This culture is located withing the geographic area of other early possible Germanic groups.

Cultures with foggy or debatable cultural connections or possible Germano-Celtic cultures. It has also been suggested that the “Nordwestblock” may have some undetermined influences.

 

The above cultures are some of the pre-historic hunter gatherer groups in Scandinavia, Poland, Germany, Baltic Coast and Central Europe. These groups undoubtedly had influence on the development of Germanic culture however some of these groups also may contributed to Balt, Slav and Celtic among others as well. In conclusion this does not mean direct exclusive development as this is largely attributed to Indo-European culture moving into contact with the earlier Hunter Gatherer cultures present at that time.

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Germanic_tribes_%28750BC-1AD%29

The expansion of the Germanic tribes 750 BC – AD 1 .

ArcheologicalCulturesOfCentralEuropeAtEarlyPreRomanIronAge

Nordic (Green) Jutland/Scandinavia.

Jastorf Culture (Red) Associated with the larger Urnfield cultural practices and Nordic Bronze Age traditions.

800px-Vandals_Migration_pt

Vandalic Migration.

 

800px-Germanic_dialects_ca._AD_1

One proposed theory for Germanic dialect groups and their approximate distribution in northern Europe around 1 CE:
North Germanic (Blue)
North Sea Germanic (Ingvaeonic) (Red)
Weser-Rhine Germanic, (Istvaeonic) (Gold)
Elbe Germanic (Irminonic) (Yellow)
East Germanic (Green)
Rugii
Rugii.
Pre_Migration_Age_Germanic
Germanic Tribes Pre Migration.
1024px-Roman_Empire_125_de.svg
Germanic Tribal Locations.
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
North Sea Germanic (Angles, Saxons, Jutes, Frisians)
800px-Angles_saxons_jutes
800px-Britain.Anglo.Saxon.homelands.settlements.400.500
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
Viking Age.
1024px-Old_norse,_ca_900
Norse Languages (Red) (Light Orange)
West Germanic (Green)
Anglo-Saxon (Yellow)
Crimean Gothic (Blue)
Germanic languages even at this point were semi mutually intelligible.
Vikings-Voyages
Viking Explorers.
Britain:
………………………………………………………………………………………………
800px-England_878.svg
Danelaw (England).
1024px-Cnut_lands.svg
Cnut the Great’s domain.
The maps above are accepted or theoretical views on a combination of Hunter Gatherer and  early Indo-European culture could have led to the development of the Germanic cultural horizon. The later maps are of accepted distribution Germanic People through the Viking age.
Germanic Language:
1024px-Germanic_Languages_Map_Europe
Geography of Languages.
Medeltida_runor.svg
Medieval.
Yngre_futharken.svg
Younger Futhark.
Runic Alphabets.
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
Graves and Burials:

 Sutton Hoo Ship Burial. Site Contained Vendel and Anglo-Saxon Grave Goods.

Stone Ships, Circles and Dolmens associated with Germanic Cultures from around Continental Europe and Scandinavia.

 

La2-demis-gotland-ship-stone-settings

Stone Ships on Gotland Island.

 

 

Funnelbeaker Graves (Germany/Scandinavia)

 

 Tumulus:

England, Norway, Denmark, Gamla Uppsala.

1280px-Schneiderberg_Baalberge_10

800px-Museum_für_Vor-_und_Frühgeschichte_Berlin_044

Baalberge Culture  Grave (Early Funnel Beaker culture) and associated Pottery.

 

Pottery:

Skarpsallingkarret_DO-9665_original

Funnelbeaker era.

Corded Ware.

 

1024px-Sutton.Hoo.Mound17.JorViking

Sutton Hoo.

800px-Pavenstaedter-riesenbecher

Bell Beaker Germany.

 

Rune Stones, Picture Stones and Glyphs (Bronze Age to Viking age)

 

 

 

Metallurgy:

Jewelry and Ornamentation :

 Continental Iron Age.

 

Viking.

220px-Visigothic_-_Pair_of_Eagle_Fibula_-_Walters_54421,_54422_-_Group

Visgothic.

800px-Silver-gilt_radiate-headed_brooch

Lombardic.

Tuscany_Brooch

Lombardic.

Paar_Prunkfibeln (1)

Central Germanic.

 

Mjollnir (Thors Hammer)

merojewelry2

Merovingian.

Thor's_hammer,_Fitjar

Simple Mjollnir.

RYC18d

Poland roughly 9000-10,000 years old. Mjollnir?

Cast Mjollnir and Anglo Saxon Mjollnir.

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Swords, Helmets, Armour:

 

 

800px-Helmet_from_a_7th_century_boat_grave,_Vendel_era

Vendel Helm.

The weaponry shown above represents the mass variety of pieces from stone age to iron age across Scandinavia, Germanic Europe, Poland, Baltic lands and Alps.

 

The People:

The Gods:

Odin,_der_Göttervater

Odin-Wotan-Woden-Gautr-Fimbultyr-Sigföðr-Allfather-Siggautr

All Father, Sky Father, God of victory, poetry, ecstasy and God of Witches and Sorcerers. Wisest among all Gods (Though Frikka knows more). He is ruler of Asgard and the one who reached into Ginnungagap as he hung from Yggdrasil and claimed the Runes.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_names_of_Odin

A list of Odin’s various names.

 

Freyja and cats

Freyja-Frigg-Frigga-Frikka

(My opinion) is Frigga/Freyja are the same Goddess and the difference is only linguistic as well as the Goddess Jord is related to Frigga. Again this is a personal opinion derived from my own research.

Holda,_the_gütige_Beschüzerin_by_F._W._Heine

Frau Holle-Frau Hulda

Perchta/Berchta is another form of this Goddess and it could be argued that these are again aspects of Frigga and that Frigga herself is just far to simplified in folklore. This is my personal opinion via research regarding Eastern German Folklore depicting the Wild Host and other Christian Yule tradition in North Eastern Germany.

 

Thor_und_die_Midgardsschlange

thorstatue

Thor-Donar-Thunar-Tor

Son of Odin and Jord, great protector of Midgard and slayer of the ancient forces of chaos. Thor is among the most misunderstood Gods in the pantheon and his identity as a Shamanic figure of evolution and intelligence is rarely picked up on. Thor has many more layers to him and the knowledge I have of him as a Deity is personal and I will not divulge it here but  I highly recommend taking a longer look and more open minded view of this Thunder God highly associated with positive change.

ggNF

Yngvi-Freyr

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

My Totemic take on Ynvi Freyr.

Ing-Yngvi-Freyr is the God of fertility and is often associated with dear antlers and once had a magic sword he had lost in a bargain for the heart of a Frost Giant. He uses an antler to fight Surtr during Ragnarok.

4J9PYa7

Skadi.

Jotun Goddess associated with the wilderness, skiing and hunting.  Had an ill-fated  marriage with with Njord the Sea God. She is known for her steel focus and ferocious connection to the wild.

1280px-Njörd's_desire_of_the_Sea

niord

Njord.

God of the Sea, Fishing, Wealth and Fruitful Crops. He is the Father of  Freyja and Freyr and is a Vanir. The Vanir are the oldest tribe of Gods.

 

800px-Lokistone

Loki.

Due to a lack of remotely flatting art regarding Loki I have including a carved stone thought represent Loki. Loki is a maligned figure and his roll is largely misunderstood to this day.  Despite his negative reputation he is a God of change, inevitable nature of things and is often referenced as a Fire God. This could be due to the destructive yet cleansing nature. Loki is the blood brother to Odin.

800px-Heimdallr_by_Froelich

Heimdallr.

The shining God and owner of Gjallarhorn. Son of the 9 mothers and the Guardian of Bifrost.

Moder_Jord

Jörð.

Earth Goddess and Mother of Thor with Odin. (May be associated again with Frigga)

1280px-Nerthus_by_Emil_Doepler

Nerthus-Nerþuz

Suebian fertility Goddess venerated in sacred groves. Etymologically could be linked with Jörð.

 

800px-The_giant_with_the_flaming_sword_by_Dollman

800px-Surtur_mit_dem_Flammenschwerte

Surtr.

Jotnar/God of fiery Chaos, destruction and guardian of Muspell. Battles Yngvi at Ragnarok.

800px-Anders_Zorn_-_Gunnlöd_1886

Giantess Gunnlöð daughter of Suttungr and guardian of the mead of poetry.

Ægir,_ruler_of_the_ocean

Ægir.

Jotnar Sea God known for his mead brewing and  feasting with the Gods of Asgard.

800px-Ydun_(1858)_by_H._W._Bissen_-_angle

Iðunn.

Goddess of youth/fertility and prominent figure in Lokasenna. Her apple keep the Gods young in the myth.

Tyr.

God of sacrifice and first Germanic Deity to hold the name Sky Father. He is associated with the very early Germanic Deity Tuisto and Proto-Indo-European Dyeus. He is the God who allows Fenrir to bite his hand off while permanently chaining him.

Hel.

Goddess of the underworld and daughter of Loki.

Fenrir.

Son of Loki and wolf who takes Tyr’s hand. Fenrir battle Odin at Ragnarok.

220px-Jormungandr

Jörmungandr.

Son of Loki. Serpent that encircles Midgard.

 

800px-Odin_and_his_brothers_create_the_world

Vili and Vé (Odin center) are Odin’s Brothers and Sons of Bestla and Borr.

Baldur_by_Johannes_Gehrts

Baldr.

Son of Odin and Frigga. Subject of one the most well known narratives in Norse Cosmology involving Loki, Hel and Hermod entering the Underworld.
Treated_NKS_hermodr
Hermóðr.

Son of Odin and messenger of the Gods. Rides to Hel on Sleipnir to bargain for Baldr’s return in Gyfaginning.

800px-Sif_by_Dollman

Sif.

Sif is the wife of Thor and Goddess of the harvest (Wheat).  She is famously the center of a cycle between Loki and Thor where Loki cuts her hair but then in apology has golden hair made for her via the Dwarves.

Sunna: Norse Goddess of the Sun.

1024px-The_Wolves_Pursuing_Sol_and_Mani

Mani:  Norse Moon God. Image depicts Mani and Sunna being pursued by  wolves. 

Beings from Norse cosmology in small sample.

Valkyries:

brunhilde

Beings of supernatural origin:

Der Erlkonig.

A dark or evil character literally “King of the Elves” is a poem by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe regarding an earlier tale inspired a Danish folk story. In the Danish story it is the “Erlkings” daughter.

German:

Wer reitet so spät durch Nacht und Wind?
Es ist der Vater mit seinem Kind;
Er hat den Knaben wohl in dem Arm,
Er faßt ihn sicher, er hält ihn warm.

“Mein Sohn, was birgst du so bang dein Gesicht?” –
“Siehst, Vater, du den Erlkönig nicht?
Den Erlenkönig mit Kron’ und Schweif?” –
“Mein Sohn, es ist ein Nebelstreif.”

“Du liebes Kind, komm, geh mit mir!
Gar schöne Spiele spiel’ ich mit dir;
Manch’ bunte Blumen sind an dem Strand,
Meine Mutter hat manch gülden Gewand.” –

“Mein Vater, mein Vater, und hörest du nicht,
Was Erlenkönig mir leise verspricht?” –
“Sei ruhig, bleibe ruhig, mein Kind;
In dürren Blättern säuselt der Wind.” –

“Willst, feiner Knabe, du mit mir gehn?
Meine Töchter sollen dich warten schön;
Meine Töchter führen den nächtlichen Reihn,
Und wiegen und tanzen und singen dich ein.” –

“Mein Vater, mein Vater, und siehst du nicht dort
Erlkönigs Töchter am düstern Ort?” –
“Mein Sohn, mein Sohn, ich seh’ es genau:
Es scheinen die alten Weiden so grau. –”

“Ich liebe dich, mich reizt deine schöne Gestalt;
Und bist du nicht willig, so brauch’ ich Gewalt.” –
“Mein Vater, mein Vater, jetzt faßt er mich an!
Erlkönig hat mir ein Leids getan!” –

Dem Vater grauset’s; er reitet geschwind,
Er hält in Armen das ächzende Kind,
Erreicht den Hof mit Mühe und Not;
In seinen Armen das Kind war tot.

English (Literal):

Who rides, so late, through night and wind?
It is the father with his child.
He has the boy well in his arm
He holds him safely, he keeps him warm.

“My son, why do you hide your face in fear?”
“Father, do you not see the Elf-king?
The Elf-king with crown and cape?”
“My son, it’s a streak of fog.”

“You dear child, come, go with me!
(Very) beautiful games I play with you;
Many colorful flowers are on the beach,
My mother has many a golden robe.”

“My father, my father, and do you not hear
What the Elf-king quietly promises me?”
“Be calm, stay calm, my child;
Through dry leaves the wind is sighing.”

“Do you, fine boy, want to go with me?
My daughters shall wait on you finely;
My daughters lead the nightly dance,
And rock and dance and sing to bring you in.”

“My father, my father, and don’t you see there
The Elf-king’s daughters in the gloomy place?”
“My son, my son, I see it clearly:
There shimmer the old willows so grey.”

“I love you, your beautiful form excites me;
And if you’re not willing, then I will use force.”
“My father, my father, he’s touching me now!
The Elf-king has done me harm!”

It horrifies the father; he swiftly rides on,
He holds the moaning child in his arms,
Reaches the farm with great difficulty;
In his arms, the child was dead.

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Ängsälvor_-_Nils_Blommér_1850

Meadow Elves.

Tomtebobarnen

Elves and Tomte from a children’s book.

Nystrom_God-Jul_10

Tomte or Jul Nisse.

A friendly house spirit in Scandinavian lore associated with the Jul.

Trolls.

Bergslien_Fossegrimen

Fossegrim.

A mythical mill or water spirit associated with waterfalls. He is known to be a master fiddle player (Hardanger). He can be given offers to teach his craft.

Nokke.

The dangerous water spirit known for taking the lives of people near water. Some times seen as a horse.

color-1

Rübezahl.

Woodwose or Mountain Giant from Eastern Germany/Poland/Czech. He is proposed to be in the Mountains between Bohemia and Silesia.

telemark

Norwegian Sea Serpent or Water Troll.

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Norse_religion

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norse_mythology

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dwarf_(mythology)

(Further reading)  check for citations as Wikipedia is being vandalized regularly by revisionists.

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Heroes: (Myth and Historical)

Portret_van_Radbout_na_de_restauratie_-_Medemblik_-_20151675_-_RCE

Redbad the Frisian.

Famous for refusing conversion to Christianity.

800px-Widukind-Herford

Widukind: A Saxon rebel against the Christian Franks.

Ed0032

Sigurd (Siegfried) Famous dragon slayer and central role in Nibelungelied.

800px-Hermannsdenkmal_statue

“Herman the German” Arminius who rallied a confederation of Germanic tribes against Rome. The resulting Battle of the Teutoburg Forest is one of the worst defeats in Roman history.

800px-Beowulf_face_to_face_with_fire-breathing_Dragon

Beowulf (Geatish warrior) Central figure in one of the greatest works of Germanic literature. (Beowulf)

 A sample of a few well known heroes in history, myth or both.

4d31f277e40a3e4_large

Sigríð Storråda.

Regardless of whether every account is true this legendary female Hero is nothing short of inspiring for her conviction to the Gods and her honor.

9c3802ad03ba4640db71391e52300776--helmet-viking-viking-armor

Raud The Strong.

Legendary Viking  who defied Olaf and died refusing conversion.

800px-Stories_of_beowulf_wiglaf_and_beowulf

Wiglaf: Faithful Thane to Beowulf and last of the Wægmunding clan. Instrumental  in aiding Beowulf in the defeat of the dragon.

800px-Dietrich_und_Hildebrand_kaempfen_gegen_Drachen

Dietrich Von Bern: Image of Dietrich Von Bern and Hildabrand. Dietrich Von Bern is a German hero/legendary figure possibly based on Theodoric The Great.

1438040835

Theodoric The Great: Ostrogoth King of Italy. Most likely the subject in the the various epic narratives regarding Dietrich Von Bern.

 

A small sampling of Historical and mythical heroes in Germanic culture.

Interesting extras:

Golden Horn of Gallehus:

An deeply interesting find with enigmatic figures, Proto Norse inscriptions and  possible ciphers . Horn shows a 3 headed figure, a Cernunnos like being and what appears to show mythical creature, ritual and dances.

 

Rakkniv_av_brons_skåne

 

Nordic Bronze Age Shaving Razor.

800px-Sutton_Hoo_helmet_reconstructed

Sutton Hoo Helmet.

Long Ships,

800px-Maypole_erection_valje_5

Maypole.

800px-Irminsul_als_Weltenbaum

Irminsul.

Yggdrasil and The Norns.

 

 

A sample List of individual tribes:

10-facts-anglo-saxon-warriors_2

Goths (Geats-Visigoths-Ostrogoths-Gepids-Greuthungi-Thervingi)

Teutons.

Bastarnae

Ambrones

Cymbri

Saxons

Angles

Jutes

Frisians

Franks

Vandals (Vendel-Lugii)

Langobard/Lombard

Alamanii

Suebi-Suevi

Swedes

Danes

Norwegians (Rugians)

Cherusci

Chatti

Ingaevones (North Sea confederation)

Istvaeones (Rhine area tribal group)

Irminones (Elb Germanic group)

Hermanduri

Bergundians

Heruli
Lemovii
Buri
Diduni
Harii
Helisii
Helveconae
Manimi
Nahanarvali
Scirii
Hasdingi
Silingi
Vidivarii

The list above is an example not a complete list.

Proposed Norse Cosmology:

 

WHEATON(1844)_The_Cosmos_in_the_Norse_mythology

Norse Cosmology Henry Wheaton 1831.

diagram

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Female Warriors:

800px-Birka,_Sweden_Viking_grave_Bj_581_by_Hjalmar_Stolpe_in_1889

 

Birka Shield Maiden: Historical person.

Brunhild_(Postkarte),_G._Bussiere,_1897

Brunhild: (Mythical) Central character in Völsunga saga. She depicted as a powerful Nordic queen and warrior.

Hervor: (Myth and Possibly Historical) She is featured in the Tyrfing Cycle where she is a powerful warrior renowned for her strength and possession of Tyfing. She acquired the sword from a haunted island where she summons her dead father and demands the sword. During this event her crew flees in fear. As the daughter of Heidrek she is a Gothic warrior who dies in battle against the Huns.

Freydís Eiríksdóttir: (Historical) Daughter of Erik the Red and like her father renowned for fierceness and a violent temper. she is implicated in several events to have taken place in Vinland (North America)

6028d3e4a69ed2c1fe0c65ddab1c332c[1]

Veborg: Legendary Scandinavian Shield Maiden.

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Days of the Week:

Sun-Day (Sunna)

Moon-Day (Mani)

Tyr’s-Day (Tyr)

Woden’s-Day (Odin)

Thor’s-Day (Thor)

Friggs-Day (Frigga)

Saturn-Day (Disputed and may have a different etymology)

geatishsymbol12

 

In Conclusion I hope I have created a visual narrative across the deep history of Germanic culture. Again all images are collected from the Internet and are used for educational purposes only.

Until the next time take care and thank you for taking a look at my blog. My apologies for any typos or missed/mixed up chronology.

Cheers!

 

Hroth-

 

 

Injury

As it goes sometimes life is a bitch. I just badly injured my Rib due to a severe flu/coughing. If anyone makes it to my  Etsy.com page it is on vacation until my rib at least begins to mend.

Bummer, however I am working on Norse People part 2 and am at about 75% done. Silver linings.

geatishsymbol12

Hroth-

Who are the Celts

The Celts are a warrior culture possibly originating  in Central Europe with the Hallstatt culture of  early Bronze Age (Theoretical). North western, Central and Eastern Europe had large Celtic populations that increased and decreased over time and tumult with incoming tribes from the North as well as regular battle with Rome. These warriors have left many place names, mysterious burial mounds and captured the imagination of generations with images of shining swords, Bonfires, Battle Horns and Board crested helmets. Sit back, relax and  lets take a closer look at the Celts..

AL IMAGES COLLECTED AS CREATIVE COMMONS FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES.

If you are the owner of any said image and wish to have it removed please message and I will do so post haste.

a9ef342df4bbb72544e4caa33ee77790

Diachronic distribution of Celtic peoples, on the traditional view:

Yellow: Core Hallstatt territory, by the sixth century BC
Light Green: Maximal Celtic expansion by 275 BC
Lighter Green: Lusitanian area of Iberia where Celtic presence is uncertain
Dark Green: Areas where Celtic languages remain widely spoken today

 

* VIA WIKKIPEDIA.ORG

Hallstatt_LaTene

Overview of the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures.
The core Hallstatt territory (HaC, 800 BC) is shown in solid yellow.
The eventual area of Hallstatt influence (by 500 BC, HaD) in light yellow.
The core territory of the La Tène culture (450 BC) in solid green.
The eventual area of La Tène influence (by 250 BC) in light green.
The territories of some major Celtic tribes of the late La Tène period are labelled.

 

Legendary metallurgy:

Wandsworth_Shield

Bronze shield boss in La Tène style found in the river Thames England. (Iron Age)

Museum_Hallstatt_35

Hallstatt era (Austria) Swords/Daggers “Antenna style hilt” .

 

Hallstatt_'C'_Swords_in_Wels_Museum,_Upper_Austria

Late Bronze Age Hallstatt “C” swords.

800px-Hochdorf_dagger_with_gold_foil

Hochdorf “Chieftains Grave” Dagger 530BC Germany. Hallstatt culture.

800px-Linz_Schlossmuseum_-_Antennendolch_2

Antenna Hilt Dagger. Hallstatt.

Destral_decorada_de_bronze,_800_-_750_aC,_Hallstatt_(cropped)

Hallstatt C Bronze Axehead.

800px-Kultwagen_Strettweg

Cult wagon. Hallstatt.

NHM_-_Zgornja_Slivnica_Gürtelblech_2

Bronze Belt Plate Hallstatt.

1280px-Britishmuseumwaterloohelmet

Celtic Helmet.

220px-Scuto_Battersea_BritMu252a

Celtic Shield.

Laténium-épées-bronze

Late Bronze Age Hallstatt Swords.

Alice_Schumacher_PA_NHM_Wien_Abb_Salz-Reich_2008_Seite_131_1

Beautifully ornamented Hallstatt Sword.

220px-Urnenfelder_panoply

Urnfield Culture Weaponry.

220px-Radanhaenger-edited

Urnfield Culture.

Celtic_sword_and_scabbard_circa_60_BCE

Celtic Sword.

GBM_-_Urnenfelder_1a_Rasiermesser

Urnfield Culture.

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The Ancient continental Celts were an advanced people who may have been the first to  forge Iron swords and were prolific bronze age artists, goldsmiths, miners and horse men without equal north of the Alps. The spread of the Celts is debated but archaeology shows their presence in many corners of Europe either by trade or settlement.

The People:

Like their contemporary northern kin the Celts were tall, sturdy built warriors who’s reputation for fierceness was legendary. It is theorized that the Pre-Hallstatt cultures of Europe such as the Unetice Culture, Beaker Culture and Urnfield culture had direct influence on or was the ancestor of Proto-Celtic development. It is important remember that some of these ideas are factual and some are theoretical.

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Celts were prolific on horse back but even more terrifying to their enemies was the Celtic Chariot:

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Queen Boudica Seeking her justice.

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Celtic Jewelry:

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Amber beaded necklace.

Golden Jewelry (Various eras of Celtic history)

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Hallstatt Culture.

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Graves:

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Urnfield Map.

Hallstatt Graves. (Drawing and Recreation)

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Bell Beaker Grave (recreation)

Newgrange Ireland. (Pre-Celtic Neolithic but had use and influenced Iron and Bronze age Celts)

 

Hallstatt Tumulus/Funeral Wagon.

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Language:

Celtic is a language in the Indo-European language family spoken once across Central Europe and now largely in Wales, Ireland, Britanny and Scotland.

 

 

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Celtic Languges. See map above regarding distribution.

Celtic Ogham Alphabet (Tree Alphabet) (Britain)

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Origin of the Ogham:

The cryptic Ogham alphabet used for Old Irish or possibly Pictish has heated debates on its origin. These arguments range from Latin, Greek, Runic and an origin in Gaul. Some stones do exists with both Runic and Ogham inscribed on them but its unclear if this would indicate influence.

 

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The Stones: Pictish.

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Pictish stones with symbols and some with obvious Norse influence in the knot work.

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Pictish stone with Ogham inscription.

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Pictish stone but seemingly Norse influenced.

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The Gods:

 

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Tuatha Dé Danann (Irish Mythology)

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Take not of Panel 2.

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Lugh.

Lugus-Lugh 3 Headed God which similar to a Slavic God concept and possibly depicted on the Germanic Golden Horn of  Gallehus in Denmark. The Golden horn shows what could be described as a combination of Celtic and Germanic Ideas although the horn is engraved with Runes and is of Germanic make.

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Cernunnos

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Cernunnos (Gundestrup Cauldron Denmark) Again possibly referenced on the Golden Horns of Gallehus. The concept of the horned God goes back into the deepest history of the human species.

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Taranis.

EponaEpona. Celtic Horse Goddess.

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    Sucellus. (Gaul)

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Brigantia. (Goddess)

Because of the detail and variety of Celtic Mythology please use these resource links for more detail on the wide ranging concepts and descriptions of Celtic cosmology.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Celtic_mythology

https://www.ancient-origins.net/human-origins-folklore/celtic-myths-creation-0072

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I hope this acts as a interesting snapshot of the  history and concept of the Celts. The next historical installment will be “Who are the Norse people part 2” as the original post only barely scratched the surface.

Until next time.

Hroth-

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Naturen kirke

Part of the land

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Some things in life never cease to pull at ones soul. Nature without cliche or trope is and always will be the holiest of places to me. For the last 5 years I have covered well over 2000 miles of wilderness and forest land on foot or my MTB. Closer and closer to her I become and have never regretted a moment spent in her grandeur.

Hroth-